June  2022
前面有路,公共介入: 評介《新聞崩壞,何以民主》
Book Review: Democracy without Journalism? Confronting the Misinformation Society
作者(中) 馮建三
作者(英) Chien-San Feng
關鍵詞(中) 公共服務媒體、市場失靈、美國憲法第一修正案、新聞補助、 積極新聞自由
關鍵詞(英) public service media, market failure, First Amendment to the United States Constitution, journalism subsidies, positive press freedom
中文摘要 書評重整作者的論點(美國傳媒過度商業化、低管制與公共媒體規模太小),同意擴大公服媒最能更新美國的傳播與民主。其次,該書重視美國憲法第一修正案的積極面向,要求立法促進新聞自由,如美國政府曾大量補助報業,二戰後美國曾協助德日公共媒體的建設。最後,本書評另以註解補充三點:(1)聯邦傳播委員會主委在1980年代雖挺市場,但已承認市場失靈並提補助構想;(2)美國至今仍是報業補助大國;(3)記者等工會活動近來在美國強化的原因。
英文摘要 This book review has three components. First, Professor Pickard’s main argument is reconstructed in a condensed way, and the expanded public service media is concluded to provide a necessary, although insufficient, antidote to the United States’ over-commercialized and least regulated media system as compared with those of other rich and liberal democracies. Second, two crucial arguments that merit more attention are identified. The First Amendment may allow the state to actively strengthen press freedom. And the United States government’s active supports had been fundamental to subsidizing delivery systems for the American press and the transformation of post-war German and Japanese broadcasters into public service media. Finally, endnotes are provided that supplement and emphasize two critical facts: the most market-oriented FCC chairman did recognize the possibilities of market failure and proposed remedies accordingly, and America’s local governments have always given considerable subsidies to the publishing industry. Possible reasons are discussed to explain the recent expansion of labor coverage and news unions across the United States.
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